Saturday 31 December 2011

Lake Panic, Kruger NP, South Africa, December 2011

In the Kruger National Park is a fantastic game viewing hide over-looking the excitingly named Lake Panic (Google Earth ref; 24 58 53S 31 33 58E). It has become known primarily for its birds, although on the last two occasions I have narrowly missed Lions and a Leopard. Its proximity to the Paul Kruger entrance gate and Skakuza Camp have made it especially popular and the restriction of only 8 cars in the car park at any one time is routinely ignored.

There is seating for about 20 - 25 people in the ‘L’-shaped hide, but it is not uncommon to find people standing at the back and even queuing out through the door, such is its popularity. And its reputation is justified, so much so that I want to single it out for its own posts, here and on 10,000 Birds.

I had chosen to stop here during a very quick visit to the Kruger NP. Being only 9kms from the Paul Kruger Gate made it easy to time my departure to be out of the park by the allotted time. The stars of the show today were a family of Goliath Herons. An adult bird had been bathing and shook itself dry before having a nap. Meanwhile the juveniles stood close to the edge of the water, peering in, but at a loss what to do next.

Eventually the adult bird re-emerged from its roost and regurgitated some food for its hungry offspring. A more detailed account will appear on 10,000 Birds soon.

Immediately opposite the thatched hide is a large colony of weavers. There are two distinct nest shapes in the colony indicating that at least two species had chosen this site and were able to tolerate each others’ closeness. The majority appeared to be the Village (Spot-backed) Weaver. The rest of the nests were built with a slight entrance tunnel descending from the woven sphere. These were the nests of the Southern Masked Weavers.

Very close in, lily pads supported African Jacanas, one of which was playing King of the Castle on a tangle of roots with a Black-necked Crake. Whichever one was currently the ruling monarch seemed determined to increase its defensive capabilities by dragging more weed and root stems onto the mound. Could this have been a prospective nesting site? It did seem rather exposed.

A Grey Heron stood gazing towards the sun with its wings drooped. My visit almost coincided with the austral solstice and I was put in mind of a Druid rehearsing for mid-summer. Close observers might notice the corrugations in the water as a Crocodile slipped silently through the pool behind the bird.

African Fish Eagles were calling with their distinctive gull-like shriek. They only came briefly into view as they came around the corner from the main body of water. Hippos kept their distance, but could be seen and heard as they rose in the water, occasionally raising a head to ‘yawn’.

As the sun began to set, the hide became busier and busier with some visitors bringing picnic hampers. A leopard had walked by at about this time on the previous evening and was said to be a regular visitor to the area. I wondered if this might have been how Lake Panic had gained its name, but I am given to understand that it was so called because the engineer who designed and built the dam that contains the lake had a crisis of confidence during the first big storm. The Sabie River flooded and filled the lake while the engineer fretted for a day and a night.

A dead tree in front of the hide was productive for less water-associated birds. As well as a non-aquatic Brown-hooded Kingfisher, a couple of Retz’s Helmet-Shrike stopped in the dead branches. The lake stretches around a corner and out of view beyond the trees. Along the northern bank Yellow-wattled Lapwings, White-faced Duck and Egyptian Goose can be seen.

In an attempt to achieve balance and fairness, I should advise you that other hides are available, dotted around the park, but in my limited experience, none so well placed and exciting as Lake Panic.

There are a couple of other posts from this trip and from a previous visit. See the links below;

See the dedicated Africa Page fro other posts on sites accesible from Johanneberg, Cape Town and South Africa

Happy New Year.
Lake Panic, Kruger NP, South Africa,

Wednesday 28 December 2011

Quickly unto the Kruger, South Africa, December 2011

A quick jaunt into the Kruger National Park in South Africa will simply never be enough. I have been driving in the African bush long enough to know that trying to predict how far one might travel in a given time is a pointless exercise. I should have known better but, once again, Time beat me and I had to change plans to get out of the park by dusk.

It is difficult to do justice to the bird watching if you are mammal watching and vice-versa, but occasionally things work out just nicely. Impala were plentiful and this Red-billed Oxpecker was giving one a fine-toothed combing. There was much to see. A Red-crested Koorhan stepped off the road into the long grass and crouched, with its head cocked as if it were about to launch itself into its display leap.

I had arrived at the Phabeni Gate (Google Earth ref; 25 01 30S 31 14 30E) intending to drive as far as the Malelane Gate (25 27 44S 31 31 56E). The journey of 100kms should have been easily possible over the four and a half hours that I had before closing time, but even before reaching Skakuza, less than a third of the way I knew that I would have to leave by the Kruger Gate.

Elephants had proved to be very watchable with 2 big bulls very close to the road. They must have recently taken a bath and were rubbing against a tree to rid themselves of parasites. they came right out onto the road and gave a superb view. These were mature bulls with nothing to prove and were relaxed in close proximity to the car. Across the road a third bull, with one huge tusk on the right, melted away into the sparce bush.

The first soaring bird seen inside the park was a Bataleur, easily recognisable with its short-tailed outline, as it passed over the top of the car. A couple of Levaillant's Cuckoos chased each other through the trees and were closely followed by a pair of Gabar Goshawks doing the same.

Another bird of prey was the Dark Chanting Goshawk. Beyond the range of the Pale Chanting Goshawk, this one was easy to identify without having to check for the pale secondaries contrasting against the darker wing and back.

The road from Phabeni Gate to Skakuza crosses a couple of small water courses. A pair of Water Dikkops was roosting quietly by the bank of one.

Just before turning up to visit the bird hide at Lake Panic, a Juvenile Red-backed Shrike was seen close to the road and it sat well for some pictures.

The best part of the short visit to the Kruger was the hour and a half that I spent at Lake Panic (Google Earth ref; 24 58 53S 31 33 58E). I chose to stop here as it would not have been possible to reach the next gate and thus I was committed to leaving the park by the nearby Kruger Gate come closing time.

Lake Panic was such a delightful place that I will devote a whole post to it and it has given me a post for 10,000Birds in the New Year too. The bird list that follows includes the birds from Lake Panic.
Don’t ever imagine that distance divided by speed will give you a good approximation of time while driving in the Kruger National Park. You can try it, but will probably still be wrong by hours!

Birds seen; 51
Grey Heron 2, Goliath Heron 3, Cattle Egret 6, Striated Heron 1, Hadada Ibis 3, White-faced Whistling Duck 8, Egyptian Goose 6, African Comb Duck 1, African Fish Eagle 2, Brown Snake Eagle 1, Bataleur 4, Dark Chanting Goshawk 1, Gabar Goshawk 2, Common Buzzard 1, Helmeted Guineafowl 8, Black Crake 2, Red-crested Bustard 1, African Jacana 6, Water Thick-knee 2, Blacksmith Lapwing 8, Wattled Lapwing 1, Ring-necked Dove 6, Emerald-spotted Wood Dove 1, Levaillant’s Cuckoo 2, Dideric Cuckoo 1, Little Swift 2, White-rumped Swift 4, Woodland Kingfisher 2, Brown-headed Kingfisher 2, Pied Kingfisher 2, Lilac-breasted Roller 3, African Grey-billed Hornbill 1, African Red-billed Hornbill 1, Southern Yellow-billed Hornbill 3, Greater Striped Swallow 50, African Pied Wagtail 2, Cape Wagtail 1, Common Bulbul 4, Tawny-flanked Prinia 1, Cape Crombec 1, Scarlet-chested Sunbird 1, Red-backed Shrike 1, Retz’s Helmetshrike2, Fork-tailed Drongo 15, Cape Glossy Starling 6, Red-billed Oxpecker 3, Southern Masked Weaver 20, Spot-backed Weaver 40,Blue-breated Cordonbleu 1, Common Waxbill 1.
For posts on other sites close to the Kruger National Park, floow the links below;

There are many more posts for sites that are accessible from Johannesberg, Cape Town and far wider on the continent of Africa on the dedicated Africa page.

Kruger, South Africa, JNB Johannesburg,

Monday 26 December 2011

Mount Sheba Re-visited, South Africa, December 2011

My issues at Mount Sheba are still unresolved, but this morning brings another chance and as much time as I need. The journey from Lydenberg was quick and easy with a few species gleaned from the side of the road as I drove. A Rock Kestrel sat atop a telegraph pole and plenty of small weavers and doves flushed from the verges as I passed. The local relay station was guarded by a good flock of roosting Cattle Egrets.

Driving onto the reserve, it quickly became apparent that I had made the right choice to stay high in the mountains. Cloud cloaked the lower layers and meant that there was no need to hurry to get to the forest. On the approach road, swifts were already feeding and I had the chance to take a really good look as they swept low across the road and note the contrasting back of the Black Swift that differentiates them from the Common (European) Swift.

The cloud layer had actually settled just below the resort, so I pressed on into the forest on the road that passes Chalet No 1. The Narina Trogons and the Red-chested Cuckoos were calling again, but I was still unable to get a decent look at any of them. The forest was very quiet this morning. I followed the road until a sign enticed me into the forest along the trail that passes Marco’s Mantle. Despite stopping frequently, I found almost nothing until I traced the source of a “sweet pepper” call to a White-starred Robin. The path was rough in places and I spent more time watching my step rather than looking for birds. It is useful to know the calls of some of the species that you are likely to find in the forest. This leaves your eyes available to look where you are going. The trail is narrow and rocky, but well marked.

Another trail leads out from the left side of the road as it reaches the resort. Here a Grey Cuckoo-shrike and a Terrestrial Brownbul were seen, but the target birds from the forest remain unticked.

In the gardens and around the small trout lake birds were much easier to see. A Cape Wagtail parent was feeding its juvenile chick on the edge of the pond and a pair of young Familiar Chat watched hungrily from the fence as they waited for their parents.

A young Cape White-eye maintained a keening noise until its parents re-appeared with more food for it. On the steep switchback road above the resort, plenty of birds were moving, but very few sat still for the camera. Only a Bar-throated Apalis popped its head out to scold me.

A couple of birds that do not appear on the resort’s bird list were also seen with a group of 4 European Golden Orioles, a Black-throated Canary and a very washed out European Roller noted. The Roller struck me especially as it was so pale.

Birds seen; 38
Cattle Egret 50, Jackal Buzzard 2, Rock Kestrel 1, Helmeted Guineafowl 6, Ringnecked Dove 60, African Palm Swift 3, African Black Swift 20, White-rumped Swift 6, European Roller 1, Rock Martin 2, Greater Striped Swallow 40, Cape Wagtail 2, Grey Cuckoo-shrike 1, Common Bulbul 6, Sombre Greenbul 2, Terrestrial Brownbul 1, White-starred Robin 1, Cape Robin-chat 2, Common Stonechat 8, Familiar Chat 2, Drakensberg Prinia 3, Bar-throated Apalis 3, Cape Grassbird 1, African Dusky Flycatcher 1, Greater Double-collared Sunbird 2, Cape White-eye 25, Eurasian Golden Oriole 4, Common Fiscal 8, Cape Crow 2, Pale-winged Starling 11, Red-billed Quelea 1, Yellow-crowned Bishop 40, Red Bishop 120, Yellow Bishop 4, White-winged Widowbird 3, Common Waxbill 3, Pin-tailed Whydah 2, Black-throated Canary 1.

There are more posts from Dullstroom and nearby sites at the links below;

Visit the dedicated Africa Page for other sites near Johannesburg and for posts from elsewhere in South Africa and further afield on the Dark Continent.
Mount Sheba, South Africa, JNB

Saturday 24 December 2011

Mount Sheba, South Africa, JNB, December 2011

I had some unfinished business to attend to in the Afro-montane forest of Mount Sheba, and found that I had a couple of hours of daylight left after exploring the grasslands of Dullstroom. The entrance to the resort (Google Earth ref; 24 53 15S 30 40 46E ) is about 30 minutes drive from Lydenberg and a further 10kms will find you at the hotel and resort buildings.

Here Cape White-eyes were very common in small feeding flocks. This young one was still being fed by its parents and looked cross that I should disturb them.

Greater Striped Swallows and Red-winged Starlings flew around the roofs and Common Bulbuls were easy to find.

I wanted to get into the forest and look for some birds which had eluded me on my previous visits here. The Orange-bellied Thrush, Blue-mantled Crested Flycatcher and Red-chested Cuckoo had all out-foxed me here before and I was keen to make up for that.  The cuckoo was immediately audible with its three clearly defined notes repeated constantly. Its Africaan’s name is an onomatopoeic ‘piet-my-vrou’ with a slight drop in pitch with each note. There were at least 4 birds calling, but I was completely unable to locate any of them. There are chalets in the grounds of the hotel and guests were obviously in residence. I chose not to impose on the guests’ privacy by going around the back of the chalets, though this may be acceptable if you know the chalet to be unoccupied.
Around the grounds of the resort, sympathetic plantings give home and harbour to African Dusky Flycatchers. The Greater Double-collared Sunbird is usually very common here, but I only noted a couple of females today.

A road leads into the forest below the hotel by passing chalet number 1. The ‘South African Birdfinder’ book recommends this as a good place to look for Narina Trogons. They could not have been more accurate if they had nailed the bird to its perch. Sadly the light was fading fast and the silhouetted photograph was as good a view as I had of this bird. It was not even possible to tell the sex, but the profile was very distinctive and I was able to enjoy another pair shortly afterwards in slightly better light.

My 3 target birds continued to elude me. An Olive Thrush made me look twice, but any day that you see 3 Narina Trogons is a good day nonetheless. It was dark as I reached the car and Jupiter was showing high and bright. On the western horizon Venus (I’m assuming) was also very obvious. The three stars, Sirius, Canopus and Rigel, described a huge triangle in the western sky and Orion hunted upside down as is his wont in the southern hemisphere.

I took a hand-held shot to nothing of Jupiter with its 4 Gallilean satellites showing and was a little shocked to get a result.
Birds seen; 14
Natal Francolin 4, Helmeted Guineafowl 6, Narina Trogon 3, Greater Striped Swallow 6, Common Bulbul 8, Sombre Greenbul 1, Olive Thrush 1, Chorister Robin-chat 1, Bar-throated Apalis 1, African Dusky Flycatcher 2, Cape Batis 2, Greater Double-collared Sunbird 2, Cape White-eye 25, Red-winged Starling 6.
There are more posts from Dullstroom and nearby sites at the links below;

Visit the dedicated Africa Page for other sites near Johannesburg and for posts from elsewhere in South Africa and further afield on the Dark Continent. 
Mount Sheba, South Africa, JNB,

Friday 23 December 2011

Dullstroom Grasslands, South Africa, JNB, December 2011

A journey into the mountain grasslands of Mpumalanga is just the tonic for a chap still suffering from the effects of the winter malaise. Two and a half hours from the OR Tambo International Airport at Johannesburg is a small town named Dullstroom and just beyond the town is a small road on the left marked to ‘Die Berg’ (Google ref; 25 22 21S 30 08 31E ). This unmade road crosses the railway line and enters a vast tract of grassland.

The journey had included a lot of common and widespread birds such as Hadada Ibis, Blacksmith Plover and Red Bishop, but the large part of the drive is on the motorway and it had not been possible to stop. The first opportunity I had to pull over came just beyond Belfast (on the R540) where a Long-crested Eagle perched on a telegraph pole.

The traffic on the unmade road into the grassland is very light, but please be aware that vehicles come round corners and over rises quickly and suddenly. Birds were seen as soon as I crossed the railway line with a White Stork and a Black-headed Heron in a newly mown field and Cape Canaries on the phone lines.

3kms on from the railway line is a rocky slope out to the left of the road. This often holds Malachite Sunbirds and Grey Rhebok may be seen here too. I stopped especially to scan the proteas on the hillside for Gurney’s Sugarbird. This is a spot recommended by the incredibly accurate ‘Southern African Birdfinder’ book and the sugarbird was one of my targets for the trip. The proteas are a bit distant from the road and I was unable to pick out a sugarbird on this occasion.

Further along on the right is a marsh created as waters from a dam on the left trickle into a dam on the right side of the road. Red Bishops, Yellow Bishops and Yellow-crowned Bishops can easily be found here along with the non-clergy birds such as Southern Bald Ibis, Red-billed Quelea and Red-collared Widow. All were sporting their magnificent breeding colours on this week before Christmas. The females however put in very little effort and remain dowdy throughout the festive season.

On the next bend, exactly as predicted by the ‘SAB’, a Buff-streaked Chat hopped amongst the rocks. From here-on-in the vista opened out and the wide expanses of grassland, strewn with rocks and wildflowers reached to the far horizons.

Mammals such as Blesbok, Common Duiker and Common Reedbuck were seen, but these animals do not enjoy any kind of protection from National Parks or sanctuaries and are truly wild and thus very shy.
There were cisticolas and pipits, but when faced with tricky birds such as these I often turn away and pretend that I haven’t seen them as to take the time to identify them correctly is not always an efficient way to spend a morning. A Long-billed Pipit stayed near enough and long enough for me to get a good look and an Orange-throated Longclaw was unmistakeable in the distance.

After about 17kms the unmade road rejoins the tarmac (R577) and I took the right hand option towards Lydenberg (Mashishing). A short way along here is another protea-studded slope that ‘SAB’ assured me would harbour my Gurney’s Sugarbird. There is a lay-by on the right where you could leave the car and walk down to the bushes on the gentle right hand curve at Google Earth ref; 25 14 02S 30 09 04E.
The sugarbird was not immediately obvious, but I could see protea flowers on these bushes which would exponentially enhance my odds of finding one. A cryptic-coloured shape in the shade of the furthest bush piqued my attention and after a few moments of trying to change it from a rock into something more exciting, it suddenly turned towards me with the big orange eyes of a Cape Eagle Owl.

There are protea bushes on both sides of the road and silhouetted in the top of one of these was the Gurney’s Sugarbird which was my main target for the trip. It then flew back to where it was supposed to be, according to the ‘SAB’, and enabled me to get a picture with two lifers in the frame.

From here it is possible to get to Lydenberg and from there you can access the attractions of Blyde River Canyon, Mount Sheba, or continue down to the lowveld and the Kruger National Park.

If you do not wish to return to Dullstroom by the route you came. Turn right onto the tarmac towards Lydenberg (Mashishing) and turn back into the grassland after 9.5kms, at the sign for Vermont. Stay right at junctions along this road and you will eventually regain the R540 about halfway between Dullstroom and Lydenberg. There are many B and Bs and places to stay in either town. I stayed at Klitz Gras chalets  (Google Earth ref; 25 06 48S 30 26 50E ) at the T junction on the approach to Lydenberg and can heartily recommend it. Klitz Gras is also a very popular European Swallow roost.

If you intend to hire a car in South Africa, please familiarise yourself with where you want to go as the car rental companies often do not supply maps or provide inadequate ones. CNA is a popular book and stationary store that sells good maps.
Petrol stations often don't accept credit cards and insist on cash.
Birds seen; 50
Little Grebe 3, Long-tailed Cormorant 2, Black-headed Heron 2, Cattle Egret 50. White Stork 1, Sacred Ibis 8, Southern Bald Ibis 3, Hadada Ibis 6, Glossy Ibis 8, African Spoonbill 4, Egyptian Goose 6, Spurwinged Goose 6, Common Buzzard 1, Jackal Buzzard 5, Long-crested Eagle 1, Helmeted Guineafowl 8, Red-knobbed Coot 30, Blacksmith Lapwing 8, Ring-necked Dove 25, Cape Eagle Owl 1, African Palm Swift 15, Little Swift 20, White-rumped Swift 60, Speckled Mousebird 1, Bank Swallow 1, European Swallow 250, White-throated Swallow 3, Rock Martin 2, Greater Striped Swallow 30, Long-billed Pipit 1, Cape Longclaw 3, Sentinel Rock Thrush 3, White-headed Black-chat 2, Common Stonechat 15, Dusky Flycatcher 2, Gurney’s Sugarbird 1, Common Fiscal 20, Cape Crow 1, Pied Crow 2, Common Myna 20, African Pied Starling 6, Mossie 4, Red-billed Quelea  4, Yellow-crowned Bishop 40, Red Bishop 12, Yellow Bishop 4, Red-collared Widowbird 15, Long-tailed Widowbird 20, Pin-tailed Whydah 5, Cape Canary 15.
Mammals seen;
Blesbok 20, Common Duiker 1, Common Reedbuck 2,

There are more posts from Dullstroom and nearby sites at the links below;

Visit the dedicated Africa Page for other sites near Johannesburg and for posts from elsewhere in South Africa and further afield on the Dark Continent.
Dullstroom Grasslands, South Africa, JNB

Thursday 15 December 2011

Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Borivali, Mumbai, December 2011

Sanjay Gandhi National Park was spared my undivided attention as I was feeling under the weather and was distracted by various ailments, but being poorly in a beautiful forest beats languishing self-pityingly in a dark room. Actually, I was slightly concerned as predators often target the old, the weak and the sick; I was 3 for 3 in that respect and a good-sized portion to boot. Leopards in Sanjay Gandhi NP have gained themselves a bad reputation over recent years. During one month of 2004, 20 people lost their lives to panther attacks.

As the city of Mumbai increasingly encroaches on the park and the villages within it grow, the big cats come into conflict with people. Thankfully, official action has greatly reduced attacks on humans, but the panthers are still commonly seen in the suburbs that surround the park, hunting for stray dogs.

Crows were the big story of the day. Hundreds and hundreds of House Crows were seen on the 30 minute ride to the park this morning. They were still abundant, but began to give way to more Large-billed Crows as I pushed further into the park.

Their cawing was deafening and maddening as it overpowered any other more interesting sounds. I had stepped off the road and onto a path that led to the left. Now that I was away from the crowds and alone, thoughts of leopards filled my head and my caution was excited by an area of scrub that was attracting a lot of crows. Both species were flocking in to the trees overlooking the scrub and screaming raucously.

I began to understand how Tippi Hedren must have felt. A predator was surely close by, but the chances of it being a leopard were slim, more likely it was an owl or perhaps a snake.  I couldn’t find anything, but I couldn’t help looking back over my shoulder after moving on, just in case.

A Cheetal stag bolted from the left as I approached the tumbledown bungalows near to the river. This area had been very productive on my last visit and it was such a beautiful day that I felt sure that today would be good too. Unfortunately, I didn’t have the energy to put in too much effort and if a cursory pish did not bring forth a bird, I passed on and the bird remained unseen.

I crossed the bridge (at Google Earth ref 19 13 30N 72 53 00E) and took the left fork, signed towards the safari area. 400m along the road is a small hut and a path leading to the right. This is the Shilonda Nature Trail. A map shows some points of interest and I decided to walk as far as the marked waterhole.
I stopped to check on a Common Tailorbird and noticed a powder blue bird in the background. Focussing quickly, I was just able to confirm a Black-naped Monarch before it flew. The path runs to the east, bearing round to southeast after a while. Fork-tailed Drongo was common along the way as were Red-rumped Bulbuls. The waterhole was dry and unlikely to attract anything interesting, so I turned round and began heading back. On the return leg a faint rustling and a movement in the scrub around a large termite mound proved to be a Rufous-bellied Babbler. It was concentrating on feeding and the photo of its rear end need not trouble readers. Instead, here is a pleasant photo typical of the park.

I returned to the junction by the bridge and began walking towards Kanheri Caves, monuments and living quarters carved from the rock by monks. Shortly after, as a group of macaques fed in the trees by the road, I was approached by two young men who warned me of the “dangerous tribals” who lived in the village up ahead. Recent reports included robbery at knife-point. Sure enough, as I rested on a rock a little further up the road, a group of motorcyclists approached and passed very close to me, jeering and trying to scare me into falling of my perch. If their intentions were any worse than teasing tourists I couldn’t say, but it seemed like a good time to turn round and head back.

The sun was high and hot by now and the raptors were beginning to move. A Common Buzzard was escorted from the area by a handful of angry crows, though a Crested Serpent Eagle was left to circle lazily.

By the gate, some features of the area include a couple of lakes which appeared to be much cleaner than when I visited last. I hadn’t really intended to have a good look at the water, I just popped down on a whim, but was thrilled to see a little head, close to the far bank, followed through the water by a serpentine body.

The big disappointment was that I could not possibly identify the snake from such a distance, but then I noticed a stall that hired out pedal-powered pleasure boats. I was tempted, but by the time a boat might be ready,  with me in it, the snake would have been long gone. As luck would have it, a second snake appeared, swimming parallel to the close bank. Its features looked very similar to the first and I was able to get a record shot and identify it when I got home as a Checkered Keelback Watersnake.

This is only a tentative ID. The features appear to fit, but I do not know if similar looking snakes exist. If anyone is familiar with Checkered Keelback Watersnakes, I would be pleased to have it confirmed.
Birds seen; 23
Cattle Egret 2, Black Kite 15, Crested Serpent Eagle 1, Common Buzzard 1, Rose-ringed Parakeet 12, Asian Koel 3, Greater Coucal 1, Asian Palm Swift 15, Coppersmith Barbet 1, Red-whiskered Bulbul 2, Red-vented Bulbul, Common Iora 1, Oriental Magpie Robin 3, Grey-breasted Prinia 1,  Ashy Prinia 1, Common Tailorbird 3, Black-naped Monarch 1, Tawny-bellied Babbler 1, Black Drongo 15, House Crow 800, Large-billed Crow 400, Common Myna 12, Chestnut-shouldered Petronia 2.
Mammals seen; 3

Three-striped Squirrel 15, Cheetal 1, Short-tailed Macaque 8.
Reptiles seen; 1

Checkered Keelback Watersnake 2

This butterfly is known as a Common Leopard, Phalantha phalantha, but has not been implicated in any attacks. Other butterflies included; Blue Pansy, Lemon Pansy, Grey Pansy, Chocolate Pansy, Common Sailor.

Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Borivali, Mumbai, BOM, December 2011